During the second trimester of pregnancy, the pregnancy becomes more visible and the woman begins to experience great changes in her body, both physical and internal.
Changes in the chest
- From the fourth month, a thick and yellowish liquid may appear at the expression of the nipple called colostrum , which will be what is excreted until the rise of postpartum milk.
- The areolas increase in size and the pigmentation deepens.
- Around the fifth month an area of pigmentation may appear around the areola forming a secondary areola.
- By the sixth month you can see small elevations in the areola called Montgomery glands .
Changes in the abdomen
- With the growth of the abdomen, stretch marks may appear that are first vinous in color and then white. To try to avoid them, cosmetic creams should be used for their prevention.
- You begin to notice the black line, called the linea alba . It is a more pigmented line that appears in the maternal abdomen from the pubis to the thorax and that also disappears some time after delivery.
- The womb is growing and at the end of the second trimester it is already above the navel and the pregnancy becomes evident, the waist has already been lost.
Changes in the skin
- The spots on the face dark, chloasma, are more frequent in the second quarter. They tend to be distributed symmetrically on the forehead, cheeks and chin and disappear late, even one year after pregnancy.
- The palms of the hands become red, called palmar erythema .
- In the second half of pregnancy, the molluscum fibrosum appear : small fleshy warts , of a brown color, which are more frequent on the neck, décolleté, armpits and inner thighs and which usually fall off after childbirth.
- The spider legs are more evident and numerous, are produced by the dilation of small blood vessels in subcutaneous red and some postpartum decrease but others persist.
- Digestive discomfort increases, there is a slowdown in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit due to the pressure of the uterus and hormonal factors, this causes constipation and abdominal distension.
The delay in the emptying of the stomach after meals and the compression of the uterus on the stomach causes the reflux or burning sensation.
The pressure of the uterus decreases the venous return in the rectum area, which is why hemorrhoids can appear that the constipation worsens.
- Urinary incontinence episodes due to changes in the anatomy of the bladder and urethra are not uncommon .
- There is also an increase in the frequency of urination due to an increase in urine formation and the pressure of the uterus on the bladder. Getting up at night to urinate is common.
Aches and pains
- Lumbar pain begins to appear as a consequence of rectification in the position of the spine .
- The night cramps are more common from second half of pregnancy, by compression of nerves of lower extremities and lower blood calcium.
- Anemia : it is more pronounced in the second trimester, and can sometimes cause palpitations or tachycardias. This anemia is due in part to the increase in blood volume, there is more plasma in the blood, and in another part it is due to the increase in iron requirements.
- Hypotension : decubitus hypotension appears, when lying on its back, the uterus compresses the vena cava, thus reducing the amount of blood that reaches the heart and there is a drop in blood pressure . The pregnant woman should then be placed lying on the left side to promote venous return and avoid these dizziness
- Gums and mouth : the gums bleed more easily, there is an increase in their size and the blood vessels they contain. This carries a greater risk of tooth decay , which is why oral hygiene should be emphasized.