The practice of strenuous physical exercise can cause problems at the circulatory, respiratory, renal, metabolic and muscular levels. How to avoid it by practicing sports correctly?
Practically all the organs and systems of our body are involved, in one way or another, when we practice physical exercise. The locomotor system will execute the orders given by the central nervous system, while the cardiovascular system, the endocrine system (hormones), the respiratory or urinary systems will promote the adaptation of the body to that situation and the supply of oxygen can be ensured. and the necessary nutrients to these muscles.
Problems derived from strenuous physical exercise
From a medical point of view, strenuous physical exercise must be considered a true aggression. These are some of its harmful effects:
At the cardiocirculatory level
Under normal conditions, during exercise the increase in cardiac output (amount of blood that the heart pumps per unit of time) is linear and directly proportional to the intensity of the activity. When exercising excessively, a tachycardia can occur that causes a decrease in the ventricular filling capacity of the heart and, therefore, in the amount of blood volume pumped in each beat.
In strenuous physical exercise, water losses can exceed desirable limits and lead to hemoconcentration (thicker blood). Fluid replacement will be absolutely necessary, drinking more water during the activity.
At the respiratory level
Exercise is a classic example of increased tissue oxygen requirements . Increased demands are met at the respiratory level by increasing ventilation, consistent with the higher performance of other systems.
If the adaptation capacity of these respiratory mechanisms is exceeded, hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and metabolic acidosis (body acidification) will appear, especially in the muscles that are performing the activity.
At the renal level
It can cause an increase in the permeability of the renal glomeruli (functional units of the kidney) due to lack of oxygen, and cause proteinuria or hematuria (presence of protein or blood in the urine).
At the metabolic and muscular level
A depletion of available carbohydrate stores in the body leads to muscle fatigue or episodes of dizziness secondary to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). The greater the intensity of the effort, the faster the consumption of muscle sugar reserves, also generating a medium of acidosis ( acid pH) in it, at the expense of the increase in lactic acid , all of which also leads to significant fatigue.
Benefits of moderate physical exercise
Faced with strenuous physical exercise, what it is about is to practice moderate physical activity, since the benefits that have been attributed to it are multiple:
- It involves maintaining the physical condition and the overall health of the body, as well as providing well-being of body and mind to those who practice it.
- Keeps the heart in shape , preventing the onset of cardiovascular diseases.
- It promotes muscle development and, therefore, improves body strength and endurance and also the elasticity / flexibility of the locomotor system.
- Likewise, it favors bone strengthening.
- Stimulates the immune system.
- Facilitates weight control.
- Prevents the appearance of metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, etc …
- Improves self-esteem and cognitive performance , preventing the appearance of psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, etc.).
- Increases , ultimately, life expectancy for the simultaneous provide multiple benefits to the body.
What you should know…
- From a medical point of view, strenuous physical exercise must be considered a true aggression.
- The damages can occur at the circulatory, respiratory, renal, metabolic and muscular levels, among others.
- Faced with strenuous physical exercise, what it is about is to practice moderate physical activity, since the benefits that have been attributed to it are multiple.