Parts of the Internal Female Reproductive System

The woman has two types of gynecological organs, external and internal. Discover the anatomy and functions of the internal genitalia of the female body and its importance at the reproductive level

The female reproductive system is made up of various organs, some external and some internal. The internal organs of women are: vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries .

The vagina

The vagina is an internal tube lined by a mucosa that connects the vulva (external organ) with the cervix or cervix. The vagina has an external opening that may be partially covered by the hymen . It is an elastic duct of about 8 or 11 centimeters in length, made up of numerous folds and covered with a mucosa.
This organ plays a fundamental role in the female reproductive system :

  1. It receives the penis with penetration and collects the sperm from the ejaculation that will travel to the cervix. At the same time, it is made up of different vaginal glands that secrete a mucous substance called vaginal discharge whose function is to lubricate the vagina and whose composition will vary depending on the time of the menstrual cycle.
  2. It is the canal through which the baby is expelled at the time of delivery (as long as it is vaginal), which is why it is also often called the birth canal.

Finally, the vagina is the outlet for blood that occurs during a woman’s menstruation.

The uterus

Also called the womb, it is the largest internal gynecological organ . It is a muscular, hollow organ, about 8 cm long and 5 cm wide, with a shape reminiscent of a pear. Its main function is to house the fetus and the placenta throughout the pregnancy. It consists of 2 different parts , the body of the uterus and the cervix (cervical neck)

Body of uterus

The body of the uterus is made up of 2 layers:

  • Endometrium : it is the innermost part, a mucosa that modifies its thickness throughout the menstrual cycle to receive the possible fertilized egg . If implantation does not occur , the endometrium sheds off and bleeding or menstruation occurs.
  • Myometrium : it is the thickest muscular layer of the uterine body. Its function is to expand during pregnancy to allow it to contract during childbirth, with the famous contractions.


The cervix occupies the lowest part and is the one that is in contact with the vagina. It has a cylindrical shape and thick walls. Its function is to receive the sperm after ejaculation and project it into the body cavity of the uterus to achieve fertilization. During pregnancy, it is closed by a mucous plug and isolates the amniotic sac from the outside to protect it from possible infections.

Fallopian tubes

The fallopian tubes or uterine tubes are 2 tubes located to the left and right of the body of the uterus , which join it with the ovaries , which are located in the abdominal cavity. They are about 10 cm long and are responsible for:

  • Transport the ovum that is released from one of the ovaries (the left or the right to alternate menstrual cycles).
  • Transport the sperm to the egg to try to fertilize it.
  • If the sperm manage to reach, it is responsible for moving the fertilized egg towards the uterus so that it implants itself in the wall.

At one end, the fallopian tubes “hug” the ovary through fingerings called fimbriae, another end that is inserted into the uterine wall and a dilated body that is where fertilization of the ovum can occur. They are covered inside by cilia, villi that when contracted transport the sperm to the egg and the unfertilized egg or the embryo to the uterus.

The ovaries

They are the female sex glands. Specifically 2, oval in shape and about 3 cm in size, located at the end of each of the Fallopian troops and inside which are the ovules. With each menstrual cycle, one of the eggs (from one of the two ovaries) completes maturation and passes through the cortex to detach inside the fallopian tube, waiting to be fertilized by a sperm. Within the ovaries there are 2 areas :

  • Ovarian cortex : this is where the eggs mature and sex hormones are produced (essentially estrogens, progesterone and inhibin).
  • Medulla : it is an internal area of connective tissue that houses blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as nerve endings.

The ovaries are protected by the fimbriae of the fallopian tubes and attached to the body of the uterus, the tubes, and the abdominal wall by five different ligaments.
What you should know…

  • The internal genital organs in women are: vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries.
  • The vagina is the outermost organ within a woman’s internal gynecological organs (sometimes mistaken for the vulva, an external organ).
  • The fallopian tubes are two tubes located to the left and right of the body of the uterus that join the uterus with the ovaries.

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