Preventive medicine in women

Current concept of health: it is defined as a state of physical and mental well-being seeking quality of life of the person

Family planning and pregnancy care

The current concept of health, which goes much further than just the absence of diseases, is defined as a state of physical and mental well-being, seeking the quality of life of the person. For this reason, it has very special connotations in women as it includes, logically, all aspects related to motherhood.
In this sense, apart from healthcare medicine in the face of declared disease or injury, Preventive Medicine has a field of great importance that includes general, dietary and lifestyle aspects, as well as the prevention of diseases common to men, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, etc … and specific aspects of women to prevent diseases of the same, mainly related to gynecological and breast diseases and, as we said before, everything related to motherhood.
In this aspect , Family Planning Programs are very important , which have a double objective. A general one, in terms of achieving a healthy sexuality and avoiding sexually transmitted diseases and a specific one, in relation to the responsible control of the couple’s offspring.
In cases where the couple’s unsuccessful offspring are sought, the Program must be a preliminary step to other more complex techniques or procedures related to the diagnosis and treatment of possible infertility and which may include assisted reproductive techniques, such as artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization.
On the contrary, when you want to avoid offspring, the Program allows, through consultation and control by the specialist, the application of contraceptive techniques. These techniques can be definitive through surgical procedures with little risk and discomfort for the patient, such as laparoscopic tubal ligation or partner vasectomy. Contraception can also be achieved temporarily by drugs or mechanical means (IUD, diaphragm and even condoms) also prescribed by the specialist.
In pregnant women , care and prevention measures should be taken with regular checks by the specialist on the future mother and the fetus.

Care and controls for the future mother

  • Controls over weight and blood pressure.
  • Controls on diet, with vitamin and trace elements when they are necessary and mainly with folic acid, a contribution that should ideally have started before pregnancy. Information on healthy lifestyles that promote pregnancy.
  • Refraining from smoking and the intake of alcohol or any other drug. Taking medications during pregnancy deserves special attention, these should always be prescribed by the obstetrician and in the event that the woman is taking any other type of medication should always consult him.
  • Analytical controls at the beginning of pregnancy to detect infectious diseases, known or not known to the woman, but with a clear impact on pregnancy, such as: rubella, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, AIDS, hepatitis B and urinary infections.
  • Quarterly analytical controls to detect anemia or increased blood glucose.

Controls over the fetus

Through ultrasounds that allow assessing the somatic development of the fetus and that basically should be performed:

  • At week 13 to detect the viability and number of fetuses, the risk of chromosomal diseases (Down syndrome) and major fetal malformations. As a result of this examination and with the mother’s history, a technique called amniocentesis may be indicated, which presents a certain risk that must be jointly assessed by the specialist and the mother and performed when she is older than 35 years or chromosomal abnormalities of the fetus may be suspected. This technique would be practiced in the 15th week of pregnancy. There is also the possibility of detecting Down syndrome through a blood test.
  • Between weeks 18 and 20 to detect, again, possible congenital malformations and assess the somatic development of the fetus and at the end of pregnancy to know the fetal position and perform a new global assessment.

Fetal monitoring , which should be performed from week 36.
These measures are complemented by the Childbirth Preparation Programs from the second trimester of pregnancy and that through breathing and relaxation techniques, prenatal gymnastics, group psychotherapy and information to the future mother about the biological process of her motherhood, they seek that she is physically and psychologically prepared for the time of delivery.

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